Think again if you believe that welding involves only one method.
Or that the variations you see are just special techniques that the welder thought of doing to make the job easier.
It may not be that obvious to an untrained eye, but there are different types of welding that professionals make use of depending on the material they are using and the kind of project they are doing. These different types will also have different results, although they all achieve the basic goal of welding, which is to join pieces of metal together.
If you can’t differentiate one welding method from the other just yet, don’t worry because it is a common dilemma and we are here to help you out.
For starters, we will talk about TIG welding, which remains one of the most widely used methods around. We will tell you what it is, some valuable tips if you want to try it out, and how it should be used when welding materials such as aluminum and stainless steel.
So, let’s get to it!
What is TIG Welding?
By now, you may be wondering what TIG welding is, especially if it is your first time to hear about it. TIG stands for tungsten inert gas, which is its main component. It is also known as gas tungsten arc welding, or GTAW, and is one of the arc welding types. Tungsten is used because of its high melting point, which is ideal for welding.
In TIG welding, an arc is made between the tungsten electrode, which is non-consumable and is attached to the torch, and the material. This arc is surrounded by an inert gas, typically helium or argon, that functions as a shielding gas to prevent oxidation and contamination of the metals while welding.
The arc produces enough heat to create a molten weld pool. As this molten pool forms, a filler material is typically added to it that melts and mixes with the weld pool. This filler material comes in the form of a rod and is separately held, which means you hold the torch in one hand and the filler rod in the other hand. The weld seam is formed when the molten weld pool mixed with filler material cools down.
Filler materials that can be used for TIG welding vary, and among these are stainless steel, aluminum, nickel, and mild steel. TIG welding without using filler material is also possible, but it can affect the quality of the weld.
TIG Welding Advantages and Disadvantages
With the different welding types available, you might ask yourself why you should choose TIG welding over others in projects where other types can also be used. To answer that, you need to discover its advantages and disadvantages.
- Produces a high-quality weld and superior weld bead that does not sacrifice the strength of the joint and is corrosion-resistant
- A high-purity weld is created because TIG welding requires working in a completely clean environment and with clean materials
- Generally affordable
- While it is typically done manually, automation is possible for orbital TIG welding
- No flux, which means any hassles or issues involving slag is avoided
- Little to no touchups or finishing process needed after welding because of the quality of weld made
- Offers versatility because it can be used to weld various materials
- Its small heat zone lessens any possible distortions and allows the welder to work with thinner materials
- No fumes, sparks, spatter, and flames produced in most cases
- Allows you to work on even small joints, as well as hard to reach sections that other welding types are not capable of
- Offers more control to the welder
- Torch with a pen-like design and size allows the welder to create intricate designs, that is why it is also used in creating art
- Welding is possible in all positions
- Ideal if you need gas-tight joints
- Two-handed operation offers convenience if you need to switch filler rods
- Autogenous or filler-free welds are possible
- Defective welds are rare
- Continuous work is possible because of the non-consumable tungsten electrode used
- Working with dirty materials and environment will weaken the joint formed
- Its deposition rate is low, which means you need to work slowly to get the kind of weld you need; a slow pace is needed for a successful weld
- Cannot be used to weld thick materials
- Using this method requires training; it cannot be done by anyone without proper knowledge of the process
- It is harder to separate two metals welded together, such as when recycling metals, and doing so will likely damage both base materials
- Requires the use of both hands and one foot for the pedal at the same time when working
- Can be more expensive than other welding types, particularly because of the shielding gas and equipment used
- Produces high levels of UV rays, requiring a welder to use the right eyewear at all times when welding
It is important to know all these advantages and disadvantages before deciding whether TIG welding is suitable for your project or you should consider other types.
MIG vs TIG Welding
MIG vs TIG welding – two different welding types that are often used interchangeably, and it is easy to see why.
For starters, even their names are already quite similar. Their basic function is also the same, which is to fuse two metals together, and they both require a shielding gas when welding. But this is basically where their similarities end. By now, you are already quite familiar with TIG welding so it will be a lot easier to understand their differences.
Unlike TIG welding, MIG welders only require one-handed operation and MIG welding is therefore considered a point-and-shoot process – you only have to point the gun at the location you want to weld and press the trigger to start welding. This makes it a method that is fairly easy to do even for beginners.
TIG welding requires a filler rod held separately, while the filler material in the form of a wire is directly fed to the gun in MIG welding, so it is automatically added as you weld. This means the process is simplified and offers faster welding, allowing you to weld at a faster pace and increase productivity. Unfortunately, this also means that the joint created is not as strong as the one created via TIG welding.
MIG welding is much more suitable for thicker materials, whereas TIG welding is best for thinner ones. And while TIG welding offers a high-quality finish, the same cannot be said for MIG welding because small holes are often formed at the joints. And because MIG welding costs less overall, this makes it suitable for most applications, while the more expensive TIG welding is ideal for specialized ones.
There are also other minor differences between MIG and TIG welding, but these are the major ones that you should be aware of.
Basic TIG Welding Tips for Beginners
If you consider yourself a beginner to TIG welding, these basic tips will be of great help to you once you learn the ropes through training, and they can also help if you’re currently in the process of finding that right TIG welder to get you started:
- Keep it clean. If you want the best quality weld possible, you must ensure that both your working environment and the materials you wild be welding are completely free of impurities, such as dust and rust.
- Safety first. Never forget to wear your safety gear when working.
- Choose the right tungsten. TIG welding involves the use of tungsten, and there are different types available. Always match the material to the right type of tungsten.
- Also, consider the thickness of the tungsten. If it is too thin, it can overheat quickly. But if it is too thick, it will need more heat once you start using your torch.
- Less power is more. Choose the lowest power setting that you can handle or sustain because too much power will likely cause it to burn through the material.
- The angle is key. While you can weld in all positions, make sure that there is a 15 to 20-degree angle between your torch and the metal and away from the travel direction. This allows you to easily work with the filler material and offers better visibility as you weld.
- Avoid the common rookie mistaking involving the filler. You should always allow the filler rod to be melted by the molten pool created by the torch because using the torch to melt the filler material will only result in a weak weld.
- Never allow the tungsten tip to touch the molten pool. This will cause the tip to become contaminated. When this happens, you must regrind it first using a diamond grinding wheel before restarting if you want a high-quality weld. And when grinding, do it as even as you possibly can and in a lengthwise direction.
- Keep it slow, steady, and consistent. You need to work carefully and at a controlled and steady pace to produce a uniform weld. Also, there should be a small gap, ideally only 1/8 to 3/16 inch, between the base material and the electrode when welding.
These are just some of the many tips that you need to take note of when you are still mastering this type of welding. TIG welding is a more specialized type, but it does not mean beginner welders like you should not attempt it.
TIG Welding Stainless Steel
Stainless steel is a challenging material to weld because of its excellent heat retention, which can cause it to warp, rust, and become brittle when being welded. Because of these characteristics, only a few of the available welding types can be used for it, and one of these is the TIG welding method.
While TIG welding can be used for stainless steel following the usual process, extra care is needed when doing so. Aside from choosing the correct type of tungsten, gas, and filler material, ensuring that your workplace is clean, and that the tungsten tip is properly sharpened, you must also focus on the heat being applied to the metal.
Using too much heat increases the risk of warping, that is why it is important that just the right amount of heat is applied to stainless steel and this can be determined by the color of the weld. If you are using the right amount of heat, the color should range from a flaxen or light-yellowish to a salmon color. But if you see that the weld is grayish or dark in color, it means that too much heat is being applied.
To prevent this, increase the speed of travel of the torch and reduce amperage at the same time. You can also opt for a thinner filler rod so that it can melt much faster at moderate heat. And to prevent the coloring common to welding stainless steel, it is a good idea to stop every now and then as you weld and allow the material to cool, especially once you start noticing discolorations while welding.
TIG Welding Aluminum
TIG welding is often associated with aluminum because the majority of projects done through this method involves aluminum. But just like stainless steel, aluminum has properties that also make it complicated to weld with. Additionally, there are no color changes as you weld, making it hard to determine if you are doing it right.
Not only is it an excellent conductor of heat, but the oxide layer present on the surface of aluminum has a higher melting point than the base material itself. This means you need precision in terms of the heat to surpass the oxide layer while at the same time prevent the base material from overheating. That is why when working with aluminum, remember the following:
- Use a stainless steel brush to clean and remove the oxide layer before welding aluminum. Do so in one direction only and use the same brush for aluminum only.
- Weld aluminum using an AC or alternating current polarity, as this will remove the oxide layer that quickly reforms after cleaning with the stainless steel brush.
- To prevent burning through the base material and creating distortions on your weld, increase the speed of travel as you weld but make sure that the welding current is set high enough. If done too slow, it will burn through the base material.
- The arc should not be high enough nor too close. Make sure that it is just close enough so that the heat is concentrated on a small area only.
TIG welding offers you more control as you weld, which is needed in aluminum. This is why even if MIG welding can also be used on aluminum, TIG welding is the method of choice for many welders working with this material.
TIG Welding Copper
Another metal that can be quite a challenge to weld but is doable using TIG welding is copper. This metal is known for its high conductivity, which means it will quickly heat up once you start welding. But at the same time, this property means that the weld pool created quickly dissipates because copper cools it down quickly.
That is why when working with copper, you also need to weld fast and hot. Not only that but pre-heating the entire material using a propane torch will aid in preventing the molten pool from immediately solidifying. Copper is also prone to warping so if you are working on thin sheets of copper and require it to retain its shape, this method may not work for you.
Proper cleaning and ventilation in your workplace are also important. Copper is known to oxidize and form a patina, which must be removed using a stainless-steel brush with fine bristles. While TIG welding is generally fumeless, any fumes generated when welding copper is hazardous that is why proper ventilation is important. Also, the high heat required to work can be potentially dangerous if flammable items are in close proximity; it can get hot enough to ignite them.
Because of the versatility when it comes to TIG welding, always make sure that you are using the right materials for your project, especially in terms of the tungsten electrode, filler rod, and shielding gas; they need to be appropriate for your base material if you want to produce a high-quality weld. Also, make sure to undergo training before attempting this method. TIG welding requires specialization, but it can still be done by a beginner trained to do so.